Bladder cancer is one of the major cancers of the urinary system that is one of the most expensive cancers to treat due to a high recurrence rate.
Typically, routine monitoring of bladder cancer is performed by cystoscopic examination and is invasive, painful, and expensive. Cystoscopy is often augmented by a non-invasive laboratory method such as urine cytology. However, these tests lack adequate sensitivity or specificity to significantly improve the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer patients.
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